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修建构造抗震设计根本知识

来源:     发表日期: 2019-03-04 10:45:10     浏览次数:次    
修建构造抗震设计根本知识
Fundamental Knowledge of Seismic Design of Construction Structures
可以对立震的根本概念、抗震设防目的和抗震设计的根本要求知识点掌握。
We can master the basic concepts of vertical earthquakes, the purpose of seismic fortification and the basic requirements of seismic design.
可以具有砌体构造房屋和钢筋混凝土框架房屋、框架剪力墙构造、剪力墙构造房屋的抗震设计要点,从而爲识读平法03G101-1混凝土构造施工图中抗震局部打下根底
The main points of seismic design of masonry building and reinforced concrete frame building, frame shear wall structure and shear wall structure can be possessed, so as to lay a foundation for understanding the anti-seismic part of the concrete construction drawing of level method 03G101-1.
地震是由于某种缘由惹起的空中激烈运动。是一种自然景象,依其成因,可分爲三品种型:火山地震、塌陷地震、结构地震。由于火山迸发,地下岩浆迅猛冲出空中时惹起的空中运动,称爲火山地震。此类地震释放能量小,绝对而言,影响范围和形成的毁坏水平均比拟小;由于石灰岩层地下溶洞或古旧矿坑的大规模崩塌惹起的空中震动,称爲塌陷地震。此类地震不只能量小,数量也小,震源极浅,影响范围和形成的毁坏水平均较小;由于地壳结构运动推挤岩层,使某处地下岩层的单薄部位忽然发作断裂、错动而惹起空中运动,称爲结构地震;结构地震的毁坏性强影响面广,而且频繁发作,约占毁坏性地震总量度的95%以上。因而,在修建抗震设计中,仅限于讨论在结构地震作用下修建的设防成绩。
Earthquakes are caused by some kind of intense movement in the air. It is a natural phenomenon. According to its origin, it can be divided into three types: volcanic earthquake, collapse earthquake and structural earthquake. As a result of volcanic eruption, underground magma rapidly rushed out of the air caused by the air movement, known as volcanic earthquakes. Such earthquakes release small energy, absolutely speaking, the impact scope and the level of destruction are comparatively small; the air vibration caused by large-scale collapse of karst caves or old mines in limestone strata is called collapse earthquake. Such earthquakes are not only small in quantity, but also small in quantity, with very shallow focal points, and the damage extent and level of formation are small; because crustal structural movement pushes rock strata, the thin part of underground rock strata suddenly breaks and dislocates and causes air movement, which is called structural earthquakes; structural earthquakes have a wide destructive impact area and frequent occurrences, accounting for about 95% of the total destructive earthquakes. More than%. Therefore, in the seismic design of construction, the discussion is limited to the results of construction under the action of structural earthquakes.
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地壳深处发作岩层断裂、错动的部位称爲震源。这个部位不是一个点,而是有一定深度和范围的体。震源正上方的空中地位叫震中。震中左近空中震动*凶猛,也是毁坏*严重的地域,称爲震中区。空中某处至震中的程度间隔称爲震中距。把空中上毁坏水平类似的点连成的曲线叫做等震线。震中至震源的垂直间隔称爲震源深度。
The place where the fracture and dislocation of rock strata occur in the deep crust is called the focal point. This part is not a point, but a body with a certain depth and scope. The air position just above the source is called epicenter. The earthquake epicentre is called epicenter area because it shocks fiercely in the air near the left of the epicentre and is also a region of serious destruction. The degree interval from a certain place in the air to the epicenter is called epicenter distance. The curve that links points with similar levels of destruction in the air is called an isoseismal line. The vertical interval between epicenter and source is called focal depth.
依据震源深度不同,可将结构地震分爲浅源地震(震源深度不大于60km),中源地震(震源深度60~300km),深源地震(震源深度大于300km)三种。我国发作的绝大局部(地震都属于浅源地震,普通深度爲5~40km)。
According to the different focal depths, structural earthquakes can be divided into shallow source earthquakes (focal depths not more than 60 km), medium source earthquakes (focal depths 60-300 km) and deep source earthquakes (focal depths greater than 300 km). Most of the earthquakes occurred in China (the earthquakes belong to shallow source earthquakes with a common depth of 5-40 km).
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