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分析楼层越高越抗震吗?

来源:     发表日期: 2018-12-07 09:52:45     浏览次数:次    
  高层建筑怎么防震?比低层建筑更抗震?
  How can high-rise buildings be earthquake-proof? More seismic than low-rise buildings?
  一、高层建筑怎么防地震?
  1. How do high-rise buildings prevent earthquakes?
  1.看结构
  1. look at the structure.
  目前常见的住宅结构有砖混结构和钢筋混凝土结构。
  At present, the common residential structures are brick-concrete structure and reinforced concrete structure.
  2.看抗震力
  2. look at earthquake resistance
  在国际上,地震震级采用里氏震级指标,分为1-8.9级,1-3级对建筑物无损坏,4级对建筑物有轻微破坏,5级以上就开始破坏建筑物。因此,5级以上的地震区在住宅设计时应考虑防震。
  Internationally, Richter magnitude index is adopted for earthquake magnitude, which is divided into magnitude 1-8.9, magnitude 1-3 does not damage buildings, magnitude 4 does slight damage to buildings, and magnitude 5 or more begins to damage buildings. Therefore, seismic protection should be considered in the design of residential buildings in earthquake areas with magnitude 5 or above.
  砖混结构的优点是造价低,保温、隔热性能好,便于施工。缺点是房屋开间、进深受限制,室内格局一般不能改变,墙体结构占据空间过多,整体性、耐久性较差。
  The advantages of brick-concrete structure are low cost, good heat preservation and insulation performance, and easy construction. The disadvantage is that the opening and entry of houses are limited, the indoor pattern can not be changed, the wall structure occupies too much space, and the integrity and durability are poor.
  钢筋混凝土结构适用于中高层住宅,其中高层住宅以全现浇剪力墙结构为佳,多层或小高层、高层住宅常用的有框架结构、大模结构、大板结构等。
  Reinforced concrete structure is suitable for middle and high-rise residential buildings, in which the full cast-in-situ shear wall structure is preferred for high-rise residential buildings. Frame structure, large formwork structure and large plate structure are commonly used for multi-storey or small high-rise and high-rise residential buildings.
  总体说来,钢筋混凝土结构抗震性能好,整体性强,防火性能、耐久性能好,室内面局较砖混结构灵活。但这种结构的施工难度相对较大,结构造价也相对较高。
  Generally speaking, reinforced concrete structure has good seismic performance, strong integrity, good fire resistance and durability, and the indoor situation is more flexible than brick-concrete structure. But the construction of this structure is relatively difficult and the cost of the structure is relatively high.
  二、为什么高层建筑楼层越高越抗震?
  2. Why is the higher the floor of a high-rise building, the more earthquake-resistant it is?
  从理论上讲,越高的建筑,地震力越大。这也是为什么给人感觉越高越不安全的原因。然而,高层设计也是经过抗震严格设计的,本质上与低层房屋的抗震设防要求是一致的。
  In theory, the higher the building, the greater the earthquake force. That's why the higher you feel, the more insecure you are. However, the high-rise design is also strictly designed for earthquake resistance, which is essentially consistent with the seismic fortification requirements of low-rise buildings.
  尽管如此,各种因素综合下来,抗震延性好的结构从高到底分别是:钢结构、混凝土结构、砖混结构。所以选房不是越矮越好。6层一下的大部分是砖混结构,抗震能力差,比20~30层的混凝土高层还要差。普通老百姓如果选房,好选择层数少于15层的混凝土剪力墙结构。
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  Nevertheless, all kinds of factors combined, the structures with good seismic ductility are steel structure, concrete structure and brick-concrete structure from high to low. So the shorter the house, the better. Most of the masonry structures below 6 stories have poor seismic capacity, which is worse than the concrete high-rise buildings of 20-30 stories. If ordinary people choose houses, they should choose concrete shear wall structures with fewer than 15 stories.
  相对结实抗震的是框架结构,在10层以上楼房多见;好些的是框架剪力墙结构,更好的是纯剪力墙结构。还有一种结实的就是钢结构,多用在商场、客运站等建筑,在日本等国家也大量使用,柔性好,能吸附地震力量,但成本高。
  Comparatively strong and aseismic is frame structure, which is more common in buildings above 10 stories; better is frame shear wall structure, and better is pure shear wall structure. There is also a strong steel structure, mostly used in shopping malls, passenger stations and other buildings, also widely used in Japan and other countries, good flexibility, can absorb seismic force, but high cost.
  目前,30层以上的高层建筑大多是框架剪力墙结构,这种结构的楼房在汶川地震中没有坏过,性能好。据介绍,剪力墙就是混凝土构造,刚度大,承受水平向地震力度强,更结实。所以别看楼高,关键要看建筑结构。
  At present, most of the high-rise buildings above 30 stories are frame shear wall structures, which have not been damaged in Wenchuan earthquake and have good performance. According to reports, shear walls are concrete structures, with large stiffness, strong horizontal seismic force and stronger strength. So regardless of the height of the building, the key depends on the structure of the building.
  提醒准备购房的百姓,现在房屋设计上都有明确指标要求,购房前可以咨询开发商,或者要求出示相关文件查验该楼盘的抗震设防标准,低不应低于7度,如果抗震水平越高,说明材料投入越多,安全性肯定更好。
  Reminds the people who are ready to buy houses, there are clear indicators in the design of houses. Before purchasing houses, they can consult the developers or ask to produce relevant documents to check the seismic fortification standards of the building. The lower the level should not be less than 7 degrees. If the higher the level of seismic resistance, the more material input, the better the safety.
  总的来说,为了确保房屋的抗震安全性能,居民在进行家庭装修时,也千万不要私拆乱改。尤其禁止拆改房屋的基础、墙体、梁、柱、楼板等承重结构。
  Generally speaking, in order to ensure the seismic safety performance of houses, residents should not demolish or alter their homes privately when decorating their homes. In particular, demolition and alteration of bearing structures such as foundations, walls, beams, columns and floors of houses are prohibited.
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